Durio zibethinus: Durian

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The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit. Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions.

Regarded by many people in Southeast Asia as the “king of fruits”, the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, and formidable thorn-covered husk. The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres [12 in] long and 15 centimetres [6 in] in diameter, and it typically weighs one to three kilograms [2 to 7 lb]. Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species.

The edible flesh emits a distinctive odour that is strong and penetrating even when the husk is intact. Some people regard the durian as having a pleasantly sweet fragrance; others find the aroma overpowering and revolting. The smell evokes reactions from deep appreciation to intense disgust, and has been described variously as rotten onions, turpentine, and raw sewage. The persistence of its odour has led to the fruit’s banishment from certain hotels and public transportation in Southeast Asia.

The durian, native to Southeast Asia, has been known to the Western world for about 600 years. The nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as “a rich custard highly flavored with almonds”.

Photo: Singapore [20150626]

Source: Wikipedia

Morus nigra: Black mulberry, Murbei

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Morus nigra, the black mulberry, is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae, native to southwestern Asia, where it has been cultivated for so long that its precise natural range is unknown.

Morus nigra is a deciduous tree. The edible fruit is dark purple, almost black when ripe in a  compound cluster of several small drupes; it is richly flavoured, similar to the red mulberry [Morus rubra] but unlike the more insipid fruit of the white mulberry [Morus alba].

Black mulberry has long been cultivated for its edible fruit and is planted and often naturalised west across much of Europe, including Ukraine, and east into China.

Photo: JakartaIndonesia [20140611, 20150505]

Source: Wikipedia

Passiflora caerulea: Blue Passion Flower


Passiflora caerulea [blue passion flower, common passion flower] is a species of flowering plant native to South America [Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil].


It is a vigorous, deciduous or semi-evergreen tendril vine growing to 10 m [33 ft] or more, with palmate leaves and fragrant, blue-white flowers with a prominent fringe of coronal filaments in bands of blue, white, and brown. The ovoid orange fruit, growing to 6 cm [2 in], is edible but bland.

Photos: Flower DomeGardens by the BaySingapore [20140425]

Source: Wikipedia

Punica granatum: Pomegranate


The pomegranate, botanical name Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between 5–8 meters [16–26 ft] tall.

The pomegranate is widely considered to have originated in Iran and has been cultivated since ancient times. Today, it is widely cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, the Middle East and Caucasus region, northern Africa and tropical Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia and the drier parts of southeast Asia. Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is also cultivated in parts of California and Arizona.


In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to February. In the Southern Hemisphere, the pomegranate is in season from March to May.


The pomegranate has been mentioned in many ancient texts, notably in Babylonian texts, the Book of Exodus, the Homeric Hymns and the Quran. In recent years, it has become more common in the western commercial markets.

Pomegranates are used in cooking, baking, juices, smoothies and alcoholic beverages, such as martinis and wine.

Photos: Atlanta Botanical GardenAtlantaGeorgiaUSA  [20130913]

Source: Wikipedia

Rose hip: Fruit of the rose plant


^ Rosa foliolosa: Leafy Rose

The rose hip, also known as rose haw or rose hep, is the fruit of the rose plant, that typically is red-to-orange, but ranges from dark purple to black in some species. Rose hips begin to form after successful pollination of flowers in spring or early summer, and ripen in late summer through autumn.


Rose hips are used for tisanes, jam, jelly, syrup, soup, beverages, pies, bread, wine, and marmalade. They can also be eaten raw, like a berry, if care is used to avoid the hairs inside the fruit.

Rose hips are particularly high in vitamin C content, one of the richest plant sources available.

Rose hips are used to help prevent colds and influenza.

Rose hips contain plenty of lycopene, an important and strong antioxidant that prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein [LDL] as well as of many cellular membranes.

Rose hips also contain some vitamin A and B, essential fatty acids, and antioxidant flavonoids.

Photos: Atlanta Botanical GardenAtlantaGeorgiaUSA  [20130913]

Source: Wikipedia

Artocarpus altilis : Breadfruit

Breadfruit [Artocarpus altilis] is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry family, Moraceae, growing throughout Southeast Asia and most Pacific Ocean islands. Its name is derived from the texture of the cooked fruit, which has a potato-like flavor, similar to freshly baked bread.


Breadfruit trees grow to a height of 85 feet [26 m]. The large and thick leaves are deeply cut into pinnate lobes. All parts of the tree yield latex, a milky juice, which is useful for boat caulking.

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The trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. The male flowers emerge first, followed shortly afterward by the female flowers, which grow into capitula, which are capable of pollination just three days later. The compound, false fruit develops from the swollen perianth, and originates from 1,500-2,000 flowers. These are visible on the skin of the fruit as hexagon-like disks.


^ I used to buy fried breadfruit from street side stall in Jakarta. Now, its getting scarce.[Jakarta 2008]

Breadfruit is a staple food in many tropical regions. Breadfruits are very rich in starch, and before being eaten, they are roasted, baked, fried or boiled. When cooked, the taste of moderately ripe breadfruit is described as potato-like, or similar to freshly baked bread. Very ripe breadfruit becomes sweet, as the starch converts to sugar.

Photo: Pulau Ubin, 20130706; Singapore,

Source: Wikipedia

Passiflora vitifolia: Crimson Passion flower

Passiflora vitifolia is a species of Passiflora, native to southern Central America [Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama] and northwestern South America [Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru]. It is a vine with cylindric stems covered in red-brown hairs when young. The leaves are serrate, three-lobed, up to 15 cm long and 18 cm broad. The lobed leaves’ resemblance to grape leaves gives this passionflower its specific epithet, “vitifolia,” meaning “grape leaves” after the Latin for grape “vitis.”


The flowers are bright red, up to 9 cm diameter. The fruit is quite sour still when it falls off the plant and can take a month to ripen to its full flavor of sour strawberries.

More photos of Passiflora vitifolia [Crimson Passion flower] taken at the Jakarta Zoo, Ragunan, Jakarta Selatan [20140618]

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Photos: Gardens by the Bay , Singapore 20130414,  Jakarta Zoo, Ragunan, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia [20140618]

Source: Wikipedia

Passiflora edulis: Passion fruit, Markisa *

Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay,Uruguay and northern Argentina. Its common names include passion fruit.

It is cultivated commercially in warmer, frost-free areas for its fruit and is widely grown in Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, East Africa, Ecuador, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Indonesia, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Portugal [Madeira], Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, United States [California and Florida], Venezuela and Philippines.

The passion fruit is round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit is both eaten and juiced; passion fruit juice is often added to other fruit juices to enhance the aroma.


^ Flower of Passiflora edulis.

In Indonesia there are two types of passion fruit [local name is markisa), white flesh and yellow flesh. The white one is normally eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is commonly strained for its juice, which is processed to make concentrated syrup and sold in many supermarkets.

* Indonesian

Photo: Courtesy of James Gunawan, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia, 20130509

Source: Wikipedia

Annona squamosa: Sugar apple, Srikaya *

Annona squamosa a small well-branched tree or shrub that bears edible fruits called sugar-apples, species of the genus Annona and member of the family Annonaceae.


Annona squamosa is a small, semi deciduous, much branched shrub or small tree 3 metres [9.8 ft] to 8 metres [26 ft] tall, very similar to soursop [Annona muricata]. The fruit of Annona squamosa has delicious whitish pulp, and is popular in tropical markets.

It is widely distributed around the world Neotropic, Afrotropic, Australasia, Indomalaya and Palearctic‘s Mediteranian Basin.

* Indonesian name.

Photo: Mom’s garden, JakartaIndonesia [20130423]

Source: Wikipedia

Muntingia calabura: Singapore Cherry, Kersen

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Muntingia calabura, the sole species in the genus Muntingia, is a flowering plant native to southern Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and western South America south to Peru and Bolivia. Common names include Jamaican cherry, Panama berry, Singapore cherry, Malayan Cherry, Bajelly tree; [Indonesia] kersen.

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It is a small tree 7–12 meters tall with tiered and slightly drooping branches. It has serrated leaves 2.5–15 cm long and 1–6.5 cm wide. The flowers are small, white and slightly malodorous. It gives rise to 1–1.5 cm red fruit. The fruit is edible, sweet and juicy but ‘sandy’ because of its large number of tiny [0.5 mm] yellow seeds.

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It is a pioneer species that thrives in poor soil, able to tolerate acidic and alkaline conditions and drought. Its seeds are dispersed by birds and fruit bats. It is cultivated for its edible fruit, and has become naturalized in some other parts of the tropics, including southeastern Asia.

Photos: KTPH Hospital Garden, Singapore, 20130124

Source: Wikipedia